The resistance of a hardened mortar surface to wear by mechanical action. (ISO 7784-2). (EN 12808-2 Grouts for tiles). 0500101
A finely divided inorganic material that may be added to mortar in order to improve or achieve special properties. (EN 13318, EN 998). 0300101
Failure occurring at the interface between mortar and substrate or associated material. The value equals the adhesive strength.
Adhesion strength (bond strength)
The maximum adhesion strength of a mortar applied onto a substrate, which can be determined by shear or tensile strength test.
Organic or inorganic material added in small quantity to modify the properties of the mortar in the fresh and/or hardened state. (EN 13318, EN 998).
Granular material that does not contribute to the hardening reaction of the mortar. (EN 998).
The quantity of air included in a mortar. (EN 1015-7). 0400101
Air entraining admixture
Admixture that allows a controlled quantity of small, uniformly distributed air bubbles to be incorporated in a mortar and which remain after hardening. (EN 13318).
Algae and Fungae
A designed mortar for fixing and anchoring materials. Il can be cement or reaction resin based. (EN 1504-1). 0200101
Basecoat mortar for ETICS
Layer applied directly onto the background / the thermal insulation material. It contains the reinforcement. The basecoat provides most of the mechanical properties of the system.
A designed mortar used for grouting to bed machines, etc. It can be cement or resin based. (EN 1504-1).
A mortar to produce a first bonding coat in a “multicoat” system. It is usually applied in a thin coat. 0200401
Ability of a building to fulfil its required functions under the intended use conditions or behaviour when in use. (ISO 6707-1). 0100101
Calcium oxide, CaO
Also known as quicklime, having a chemical composition of one part calcium to one part oxygen. (GA)
Capacity of a mortar to absorb water not under applied pressure. There is no relation between porosity and capillarity. (EN 1015-18 – Masonry mortars). (EN 13888 – Grouts for tiles).
A fluid mortar for producing pre-cast items. Used to produce statues, balustrades, cornices, slabs, flagstones, etc.
A quick-setting binder. The most common cement is Portland Cement. (EN 197).
A mixture of hydraulic binder(s), aggregates, polymeric agents and other organic additives used to bond materials. (EN 12004). 0200601
Failure occurring within the mortar layer (where the strength of the mortar is lower than that of the substrate), or failure occurring in the substrate (where the strength of the mortar is higher than that of the substrate).
A mortar specially coloured with a decorative function. 0100201
Process of manual or mechanical treatment of fresh mortar which increases its density. (EN 13318).
Maximum value of a mortar failure determined by exerting a force in compression. (EN 1015-11 – Masonry mortars). (EN 13888 – Grouts for tiles).
The fluidity of a fresh mortar. (EN 1015-3 – Masonry mortars) (EN 12706 – Floor levelling mortars)
Correction time (adjustability)
The maximum time interval during which adjustment is possible without significant loss of final strength (eg. correction of bricks or tiles after application of the mortar). (EN 1015-9 – Masonry mortars). (EN 12004 – Adhesives for Tiles).
Capacity of a mortar to cover dynamic or static cracks. (EN 13318). 0100301
Cracking is as a linear discontinuity produced by the fracture of a mortar. Cracking is the most common pathology, ranging from a thickness of several microns to a few centimetres in severe situations. Cracking can be oriented or randomized. Photo nº 2 and nº 3 were taken on the same spot, separated by 50 m. However, the results are completely different: nº 2 shows some cracking orientation, while photo nº 3 evidences a randomized cracking.
The setting and hardening process of a mix containing a cementitious binder. (GA)
Damproofing mortar (renovation mortar)
A designed mortar for use on moist walls containing water soluble salts. (EN 998-1).
Concept of reusing existing structures to create new facilities. Deconstruction involves at least three phases either partially or fully: decommissioning (changing from an operational status to a non-operational status), dismantling, and selective disposal. 0100401
Capacity of a hardened mortar to be deformed by stresses without destroying its structure. This characteristic can be evaluated by the modulus of elasticity which is measured in dynamic or static terms. (ISO 5271 + 2).
The breakdown of a mortar by separation of the layers of which it is composed.
Service life intended by the designer. 0100501
A mortar whose composition and manufacturing method is chosen by the producer in order to achieve specified properties m(Performance concept). (EN 998). 0100601
A polymer-based adhesive used for bonding materials. (EN 12004).
Dispersion based mortar
A mixture of organic binding agent(s) in the form of an aqueous polymer dispersion, organic additives and mineral aggregates and/or extenders. The mixture is ready to use. 0100701
The mortar resistance to chemical, mechanical and climatic conditions which comprise its effective life.
White salts brought to the surface of porous building materials by water movement
Crystallisation of salts on the surface of a mortar. (EN 13318).
Lightweight granular material used for insulation purposes having a cellular structure formed by expanding clay minerals by heat. (EN ISO 9229)
External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS)
An onsite applied system of factory made products, comprising, as a minimum, adhesive mortar and/or mechanical fixing devices, thermal insulation material, one or more layers of a base coat, reinforcement, and finishing coat. The components are inseparable.
A mortar batched and mixed in a factory. It may be “dry”, which is ready mixed only requiring the addition of water, or “wet”, which is supplied ready to use.
Fibre Glass Mesh
Used to avoid Mortar cracking and to improve its shock resistance.
Ground limestone or other inert material, generally having at least the fineness of Portland Cement, and used to supplement the void filling ability of lean mixes. (GA)
The final coat of a multicoat rendering or plastering system. (EN 998-1).
Finishing mortar for ETICS
A mortar consisting of mineral, organic and/or inorganic materials forming the final coat of a system.
Failure stress of a mortar determined by exerting a force in flexure on three points. (EN 1015-11 – Masonry mortars). (EN 13888 – Grouts for tiles).
Floats and Plastic Trowel
Screed made with self-levelling properties of a flooring mortar. (EN 13318).
A very fine ash collected by the exhaust filters of boilers or furnaces, usually in the power generation industry. Such ashes have pozzolanic properties. (GA)
A mortar completely mixed and ready to use.
General purpose mortar
A mortar which satisfies general requirements, but is without special characteristics. It can be produced as prescribed and/or designed mortar. (EN 998-1). 010301
Fibre manufactured as continuous filament from molten glass, normally used for reinforcement, tissue or textiles. (EN ISO 9229).
Due to a bad mortar and/or insufficient depth of the render, the wall elements beneath it become visible, especially in wet weather.
A fluid mortar used for grouting cavities or empty junctions between materials.
A “dry” or ”semi dry” mortar for dry spray application (Gunite technique). Used for reinforcement and related works.
Aggregate with high abrasion resistance. (EN 13318).
The time during which the mortar develops strength. This time generally corresponds in practice to the time after which load may be applied to the element.
Hydrated Lime, Ca(OH)2
A binder produced by burning limestone, followed by hydration of the Calcium Oxide, resulting in Calcium Hydroxide as a dry powder. (EN 459). (GA)
A binder which sets and develops strength by chemical reaction with water (called hydration, occurring even under water). Portland Cement is a hydraulic binder. (GA)
A mortar containing a mineral hydraulic binder which hardens with water.
Resistance of a mortar to penetration of water, under a certain pressure.
A fluid and/or thixotropic designed mortar to fill cracks or cavities. Applied by injection under pressure and can be cement or reaction resin based. (EN 1504-1).
Some of the tiles are falling off. If not corrected, this phenomenon develops in time, due to the action of heat and rain. There are multiple causes responsible for the phenomena: Inadequate Cementitious adhesive specified Adequate Cementitious adhesive was specified, but it was poorly applied (for instance, after cessation of open time).
A designed mortar for levelling floors or screeds to obtain a flat and smooth surface. It is mainly used for flooring on horizontal surfaces. (EN 13813).
Life Cycle (LC)
Consecutive and interlinked stages in the life of the object under consideration.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle.
A designed mortar with a dry density below 1.400 kg/m3. (EN 998-1).
Any rock or stone whose main constituents are calcium and/or magnesium carbonates.
Low Dust Mortars
A new generation of technically advanced mortars, with a significant dust reduction during pouring and mixing before application. This technique does not affect the performance of the products and is obtained using special technologies.
A mix of one or more inorganic binders, aggregates, additives and/or admixtures, used for laying masonry units. It can be a “thick” or “thin” layer. (EN 998-2).
The interval between the time when a mortar is mixed and the time when it is ready to use. (EN 12004)
The degree to which Mortar has progressed towards full hydration. The rate increases with temperature and decreases if humidity falls. The rate can be altered by the presence of accelerators or retarders. (GA)
Mechanical fixing devices
Devices for mechanically securing thermal insulation boards of an ETICS to the substrate (e.g. rails or anchors). (EN 13499).
Metallic (Stainless Steel, Galvanized Steel, Aluminium) and PVC Profiles
Used on corners, providing clean edge and protection against impact.
Mineral coating mortar
A coloured factory-made mortar based on mineral binders (cement, lime, gypsum...) for the protection and decoration of vertical surfaces.
Mineral rendering/plastering mortar
A mix of one or more inorganic binders, aggregates, and sometimes admixtures and/or additives used as external renders or internal plasters. (EN 998-1)
Insulation material having a woolly consistency manufactured from molten rock, slag or glass. (EN ISO 9229).
Method of application of a new layer of mortar directly onto the preceding one before the latter has finished setting. (EN 13318).
A mix of one or more inorganic or organic binders, aggregates, fillers, additives and/or admixtures. 0101901
A mortar with separate pre-batched components (eg. powder + liquid) to be mixed together on site.
Natural Hydraulic Lime (NHL)
A binder produced by burning a naturally occurring argillaceous limestone. It has the property of setting and hardening under water (Hydration reaction). Furthermore, carbonation occurring by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide, also slowly contributes to the hardening process. Artificial Hydraulic Limes (HL) and Formulated Limes (FL) are mixtures of NHL with other hydraulic or pozzolanic material, including Portland Cement. (EN 459). (GA)
One-coat mortar (Monocouche)
A designed rendering mortar applied in one coat which fulfils both the functions of weatherproofing and decorative appearance of a “multi-coat” system. It is usually coloured. (EN 998-1)
The maximum time interval for finishing after application of a mortar. (EN 1346 – Tile adhesives). (EN 12189 – Concrete repair mortars).
A mortar laid under paving slabs or blocks.
Lightweight granular material used for insulation purposes manufactured from naturally occurring volcanic rock expanded by heat to form a cellular structure. (EN ISO 9229).
Colouring material to give colour to Mortar. It can be a dry powder or dispersed in water. (GA)
Admixture which, without affecting the consistence, permits a reduction in water content of a mortar, or which, without affecting the water content, increases the flow, or which produces both effects simultaneously. (EN 13318)
A mortar to stop water leaks. Normally very fast setting.
Pointing mortar (or grout)
A mortar to point between masonry units or ceramic tiles. (EN 13888)
Render/plaster with polymer as the principle binder.
A coloured polymer-based dispersion mortar for protection and decoration of vertical surfaces.
Polypropylene and Glass Fibres
These fibres are mixed with Render and Plaster Mortars, together with the mixing water, to increase the flexural and impact resistances. 0601801
Ratio between the volume of pores within the mortar and the total volume. (EN 1015-7).
Pot-life (working time)
Period of time during which, after mixing, a mortar remains suitable for use. (EN 1015-9).
Material often of volcanic origin, the first known example being from Pozzuoli, Mount Vesuvius, Italy. Romans used Pozzolanas to give hydraulic properties to Mortars. It was used in classical mortars and has given its name to the generic Pozzolans. (GA)
Constituents batched in a factory, supplied to the building site and mixed there according to the manufacturer’s specification and conditions (e.g. multi silo mortar).
Premixed lime:sand mortar
Constituents batched and mixed in a factory, supplied to the building site where further constituents specified or provided by the factory are added (e.g. Cement).
A mortar made in pre-determined proportions, the properties of which are assumed from the stated proportion of the constituents (Recipe concept). (EN 998).
Reaction resin adhesive
A two part resin-based mortar used for bonding materials. (EN 12004, EN 1504-1).
Reaction resin mortar
A mixture of synthetic resin, mineral extenders and/or aggregates and organic additives which hardens by chemical reaction. The pre-batched components are packed ready to mix together. (EN 12004).
Bars, wires, meshes or fibres added to mortars or material incorporated within a plaster/render system to improve its mechanical strength. (EN 13318, EN 13500)
A layer applied in one or more operations or passes with the same mix, with the previous pass not being allowed to set before the next one is made (i.e. fresh on fresh). (EN 998-1).
A sequence of coats to be applied to a substrate which can be possibly used in conjunction with a support and/or reinforcement and/or a pre- treatment. (EN 998-1).
A designed mortar for repair or replacement of defective concrete. It can be “structural” (contributing to the strength of the construction) or non-structural. (EN 1504-3)
A designed mortar for the reconstitution or repair of natural stone masonry.
Admixture for mortar which delays the beginning of hardening. (EN 13318)
A mortar for fixing and pointing roof tiles and for related works.
The characteristic of the texture of the mortar surface.
Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support workers, products and equipment in the construction or repair of buildings and other structures.
Layer of mortar laid in situ, directly onto a base, bonded or unbonded, or onto an intermediate layer or insulation layer, to obtain one or more purposes: to obtain a defined level, to carry the final flooring and/or to provide a wearing surface. (EN 13318).
A mortar with which to carry out floor screeding.
The capacity of a fresh mortar to spread out naturally to form a flat surface.
The capacity of a liquid fresh mortar to form a smooth surface itself.
Semi-finished factory-made mortar
Prebatched mortar or premixed lime-sand- mortar.
Period of time after installation during which a building or an assembled system meets or exceeds the technical and functional requirements.
Service Life Planning
The objective of service life planning is to assure, as far as possible, that the estimated service life of the building or component will be at least as long as its design life.
The time after which the mortar begins to harden. After this time the mortar is normally stable in the presence of water. (EN 1015-4).
Strength determined by a force exerted in parallel. (EN 1322 – Dispersion and reaction resin adhesives). (EN 12615 – Concrete repair mortars).
The time of storage under stated conditions during which a mortar may be expected to retain its intended working properties. (EN 12004).
Volume reduction of an unrestrained mortar during hardening. (EN 12808-4 – Grouts for tiles)
Cracking due to the shrinking of Portland Cement. This may be related to an excess of Portland Cement in the Mortar
Mineral render/plaster with potassium silicate as the principal binder. It hardens by evaporation of the water and solidifies under the action of carbon dioxide from the air.
Silo Mixing Pump
Silo Placing Unit
A mortar composed of primary constituents (e.g. binder, aggregates, water) batched and mixed on the building site.
Capacity of a floor wearing surface to provide friction to resist slipping by foot or wheeled traffic. (EN 13318).
A designed mortar for the finishing of a substrate to obtain a plane and smooth surface. It is used for walls and ceilings.
The exposed horizontal under surface of a part of a building. (EN 13499).
Surface to which the mortar (mineral or organic renders or paint coatings) is applied.
Admixture which, without affecting the consistency, permits a high reduction in the water content of a mortar, or which, without affecting the water content, increases the flow or which produces both effects simultaneously. (EN 13318)
Material used to support the render/plaster so that it is largely independent of the substrate. (For instance, a mesh fixed to a concrete substrate.)
The resistance of the surface of a hardened mortar to indentation by a loaded steel ball.
Resistance of a mortar surface, to resist a tensile force, applied perpendicular to the mortar surface. (EN 1348 – Cementitious adhesives). (EN 1015-12 – Rendering/plastering mortars). (EN 12636 – Concrete repair mortars).
The value (λ) of a mortar in the dry state. The λ-value is related to the density of the hardened mortar. (EN 1745).
Thermal insulating mortar
A designed mortar with specific thermal insulating properties. (EN 998-1).
Thermal insulation adhesive
Material for bonding the thermal insulation material of an ETICS to the substrate. (EN 13500). 0302601
Thermal insulation material
Material which is intended to reduce heat transfer and which derives its insulation properties from its chemical nature and/or its physical structure. (EN ISO 9229).
Thin layer masonry mortar
A designed masonry mortar for use in joints between 1 mm and 3 mm thick. (EN 998-2).
The change of consistency of a fresh mortar when energy is applied as for example by stirring or shaking.
Deflection recorded at the centre of a mortar, when a beam is subjected to three points loading. (EN 12002 – Cementitious adhesives and grouts for tiles).
The lower coat (or coats) of a system. (EN 998-1). 0103501
The lower coat(s) of a rendering/plastering “multi-coat” system. It is normally covered with a final coat. (EN 998-1).
Insulation material which results from expanding or exfoliating a natural micaceous mineral by heating. (EN ISO 9229). 0302801
The ability of a fresh [hydraulic] mortar to retain its mixing water when exposed to substrate suction. (EN 1015-8).
Water vapour permeance
Water vapour passing per unit area of mortar, under steady state conditions, per unit difference in water vapour pressure. (EN 1015-19). 0501901
A designed mortar which prevents water penetration in a substrate, under a stated pressure.
A mortar which resists rain penetration and protects the substrate from weather. (e.g. external rendering and one-coat mortars are weatherproof). 0203501
The ability of a fresh mortar to wet the substrate or an associated material to facilitate its adhesion. (EN 1347).
The sum of the application properties of a mortar which give its suitability (the ease with which a mortar may be used). (EN 1015-9). 0401901